Urban Economics Workshop

Venue: Seminar Room 2, Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University




Se-il Mun (Kyoto University) [HP]
Tomoya Mori (Kyoto University)
Minoru Osawa (Kyoto University) [HP]
Tomohiro Machikita (Kyoto University) [HP]
Kakuya Matsushima (Kyoto University) [HP]
Kazuhiro Yamamoto (Osaka University)
Miwa Matsuo (Kobe University) [HP]

2006/02/24 Fri
New economic geography with heterogeneous preferences: An explanation of segregation
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:Tiebout hypothesis (residential choice depends solely on local public goods) is extensively applied to explain geographic segregation. However, Rhode and Strumpf (2003) find that the Tiebout hypothesis is inconsistent with the long-period empirical data, and therefore a non-Tiebout explanation is needed. This paper provides such an explanation based on the new economic geography framework, into which the heterogeneous preferences of mobile workers on private goods instead of public goods are incorporated. Specifically, two types of mobile workers have different preferences on the products of two industries in the manufacturing sector in a symmetric way. The rigorous general equilibrium analysis conducted here shows that the increasing-returns technology and monopolistic competition form a mechanism endogenously leading to persistent residential segregation. There is an evolving path with decreasing transport costs, in which the two types of mobile workers are segregated, while two industries evolve from dispersion to agglomeration.
2006/01/27 Fri
Intergenerational linkages and rconomic geography
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:This paper presents a model of economic geography with overlapping generations. Individuals are assumed to decide their location by considering not only where to sell their products when young but also where to buy others’ products when old. The present generation is thus linked to the past generation by a ‘dynamic’ wage equation and to the future generation by an ‘expected’ price index. Such intergenerational linkages induce a strong dispersion force, i.e., without any conventional dispersion force, a symmetric steady state is stable even in the presence of product diversity. Symmetry breaks when the discount factor is sufficiently small. This implies that once intergenerational linkages are taken into account, consumers care about how many varieties are available at which stage of a life cycle. Specifically, the model illustrates the case in which ex ante identical agents in the same generation may be divided into ‘ants’ and ‘grasshoppers’, i.e., those who earn a higher lifetime income and enjoy greater product diversity when old, and those who earn a lower lifetime income and enjoy greater product diversity when young. Finally, the model also suggests a definition of dynamic efficiency of agglomeration and dispersion.
2005/12/16 Fri
Decentralization and open economies
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:Openness of economy may or may not accelerate decentralization. We setup a new formal model which captures the essence of the nexus of openness and decentralization where interaction between openness and regional disparity is highlighted. We then empirically examine the effects of openness on decentralization, and especially, validate propositions implied by our theoretical analysis.
2005/12/16 Fri
The effects of density and crowding on market entry behavior in geographical space
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:This study explores the antecedents of the spatial variation in market entry rates and extends the density dependence model by relaxing its assumption regarding firm heterogeneity. We argue that market entry is an outcome of new entrants' efforts to resolve competition and uncertainty problems, we theorize and demonstrate interrelatedness between organizational density and market crowding. Using panel data from the Tokyo hotel industry, our analysis not only supports the density dependence model and builds on it by demonstrating that new market entry is more likely to occur when market crowding is low and density is high or density is low and crowding is high.
2005/11/25 Fri
Competing for capital when labor is heterogeneous (with J.-F. Thisse)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:This paper investigates the impacts of capital mobility and tax competition in a setting with imperfect matching between firms and workers. The small country always gains and the large country always loses from tax competition, thus implying tax competition leads to redistribution from the large to the small country. However, the large country always attains a higher utility than does the small country. These results imply that our model encapsulates both the "importance of being small" as well as the "importance of being large". We also show that tax harmonization leads to redistribution from the large to the small country.
2005/11/25 Fri
Unemployment, trans-boundary pollution, and environmental policy in a dualistic economy(福山博文と共著)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:This study is intended to examine the effects of environmental policies on employment, the use of polluting goods, and the unemployment rate under a model introducing trans-boundary pollution affecting the productivity of the other productive sectors. That model was designed by Copeland and Taylor [5], transformed into a dualistic economy model, as constructed by Harris and Todaro [10]. Results of our analyses show that reinforcement of environmental policy through control of emissions taxes does not necessarily worsen unemployment in the urban area. Therefore, we show that it is no usually proper to maintain that some environmental pollution can not be avoided to establish economic development.
2005/10/13 Thu
Tax competition, location, and horizontal foreign direct investment(with Pierre M. Picard)
Kristian Behrens(CORE, Université catholique de Louvain)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 会議室
【ミクロ経済学・ゲーム理論研究会と共催】 要旨:We develop a two-country model of capital tax competition in which firms choose both their location and their number of plants. When firms operate only a single plant, capital is subsidized in equilibrium and firms' profits after subsidy are increasing in subsidies. In the presence of multinational firms capital may, on the contrary, be taxed in equilibrium, provided that being multinational generates sufficient rents. Further, firms' profits after subsidies are decreasing in subsidies due to the pro-competitive effects of more firms 'going multinational'. This pro-competitive effect can give rise to multiple equilibria, one of which may be a 'subsidy trap' characterized by too many multinationals, high subsidies, and low welfare.
2005/10/07 Fri
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
2005/10/07 Fri
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:橘木らによって提起された所得格差論争では、所得再配分調査や全国消費実態調査などの全国値がもとになっており、地域間の所得格差が全く考慮されていないか、都道府県単位の言及にとどまっている。 本報告では、1983~2003年住宅・土地統計調査のデータを用いて、バブル期前後の東京大都市圏と京阪神大都市圏における距離帯別所得分布を検討し、所得格差から見た都市圏の空間構造の変化を明らかにする。
2005/09/02 Fri
産業クラスター形成における製品開発型中小企業の役割 ― TAMA(技術先進首都圏地域)に関する実証分析に基づいて ―
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:地域的なイノベーションのメカニズムとして有効な産業クラスターの形成を図る上で、どの点に注目したら良いであろうか。本稿は、企業、大学など様々な構成員の中で、製品化、事業化の担い手である企業に注目する。中でも、地域性のある存在として中小企業に注目して、どのような中小企業に注目することが産業クラスターの形成に有効であるかを考察する。その方法としては、「産業クラスター計画」の先進事例として位置づけられているTAMAを事例として、同地域の企業アンケート調査から得られたデータによる計量分析に基づいて、「製品開発型中小企業が、産学連携及び企業間連携( 新技術・新製品の開発を目的とするもの)を有効に活用しており、従って、産業クラスター形成の有力な担い手となりうる」ことを検証する。あわせて、産学連携、大企業と中小企業の連携、中小企業間の連携の機能の比較を行う。