JP

Events

Urban Economics Workshop

Venue: Seminar Room 2, Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University

 

Contact:

 

Se-il Mun (Kyoto University) [HP]
Tomoya Mori (Kyoto University)
Minoru Osawa (Kyoto University) [HP]
Tomohiro Machikita (Kyoto University) [HP]
Kakuya Matsushima (Kyoto University) [HP]
Kazuhiro Yamamoto (Osaka University)
Miwa Matsuo (Kobe University) [HP]

Category
Date
Title
Presenter/Location
Details
2017/07/21 Fri
15:00〜16:30
An economic analysis of mega terminal operators (with S. Mun)
今井雄一(京都大学・院)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:In recent decades, some large terminal operators has strengthen their presence in seaports and they are called "mega terminal operators." One remarkable feature of the mega operator is its operations at multiple ports in foreign countries. This has completely changed competition structures in seaports all over the world. In this paper, we present a formal economic model of maritime transportation which incorporates foreign operation by mega terminal operators. We investigate how the emergence of a mega terminal operator affects the port charges and the welfare of two countries by comparing two cases, i.e., with and without a mega terminal operator. We also examine whether the international operation by the mega operator could be an equilibrium outcome, by looking at the incentives of the operators and the government. It is shown that the emergence of the mega operator is world welfare improving, but the effect on the foreign country is ambiguous: the welfare of the foreign country tends to be greater when the relative demand size of the foreign country is larger and the substitutability of two services are sufficiently low. Furthermore, in the entry game, there exist equilibria where one operator chooses to be the mega terminal operator and the other chooses not, when the substitutability of two services are sufficiently high and the costs for entry are intermediate.
2017/06/16 Fri
16:30〜18:00
Spatial scale of agglomeration and dispersion: Theoretical foundations and empirical implications (with T. Akamatsu, T. Mori and Y. Takayama)
大澤実(東北大学)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:In this paper, we revisit a wide variety of existing economic geography models in a many-region setup, and investigate the spatial scale of agglomeration and dispersion intrinsic to each model. By characterizing spontaneous agglomerations specific to each model in a unified analytical framework, we show that these models reduce to two canonical classes: one with global dispersion force and the other with local dispersion force. Their formal distinction is that the global dispersion force is dependent, while the local one is independent of the distance structure of the model. These classes exhibit two stark differences. First, on the response to transport costs, local dispersion is triggered by lower costs, while global one by higher costs. Second, on the agglomeration pattern, multiple agglomerations emerge and are spread over the regions in the former, while the agglomeration always takes the form of a unimodal regional distribution of mobile agents in the latter. The knowledge of these variations in agglomeration behavior is crucial for empirical analyses of agglomerations. The prevailing reduced-form regressions (e.g. Redding and Turner, 2015, §20.4) typically assume a monotonic relation between interregional transport accessibility and the size of agglomeration in a given region. But, it is not generally the case when agglomerations are endogenous. The well-accepted structural approaches (e.g., Redding and Rossi-Hansberg, 2017, §3) adopt the models of the latter class, which in turn implies a negative correlation between the level of transport costs and the size of agglomeration. But, this correlation is specific to the class of their model, and the estimated impacts would differ (in fact would be opposite) if models of the other class were adopted.
2017/06/16 Fri
15:00〜16:30
The effect of automation on intercity migration
岡本千草(東京大学・院)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:With the tremendous progress of technology in recent years, the automation of production is proceeding. Moreover, it is said that the development of artificial intelligence will accelerate production automation in the future. Does automation bring growth or decline of the regions? In order to investigate the problem, this paper constructs a measure which shows how much impact of automation each state has. The measure is used to analyze the effect of automation on interstate migration in the period 2004 - 2015. It is shown that people migrate to a state with more impact of automation. Especially, skilled occupations and some unskilled occupations, which is related to skilled occupations, tend to migrate. These results suggest that automation may accelerate agglomeration of skilled occupations.
2017/05/24 Wed
16:30〜18:00
Environmental policies in city systems
Michael Pflüger(University of Würzburg)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 会議室
要旨:This paper builds on the canonical model of city systems with micro-foundations in terms of input sharing. This model is amended so that the production of local intermediates goes along with emissions in addition to labor. This modification affects the balance between agglomeration economies and crowding costs in favor of the latter. Emissions may have a negative impact on the welfare of consumers locally and globally for the entire city system. National and local governments are assumed to be benevolent and set environmental policies which take the negative effect of emissions on consumers into account. The paper characterizes and compares the social optimum with the allocations under local governments and land developers, allowing for environmental policies to be set either nationally or in decentralized fashion.
2017/05/24 Wed
15:00〜16:30
The impact of a natural disaster on foreign direct investment and vertical linkages (with Toshihiro Okubo)
加藤隼人(慶應義塾大学)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 会議室
2017/03/24 Fri
16:30〜18:00
Commuting and internet traffic congestion
Marcus Berliant(Washington University in St. Louis)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:We examine the fine microstructure of commuting in a game-theoretic setting with a continuum of commuters. Commuters' home and work locations can be heterogeneous. A commuter transport network is exogenous. Traffic speed is determined by link capacity and by local congestion at a time and place along a link, where local congestion at a time and place is endogenous. The model can be reinterpreted to apply to congestion on the internet. We find sufficient conditions for existence of equilibrium, that multiple equilibria are ubiquitous, and that the welfare properties of morning and evening commute equilibria differ.
2017/03/24 Fri
15:00〜16:30
Time is money: Valuation of changes in commuting distances using georeferenced data (with Wolfgang Dauth)
Peter Haller(Institute for Employment Research (IAB))
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
2017/02/03 Fri
16:30〜18:00
Hub connectivity and implications for airport competition
Anming Zhang(British Columbia大学)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
2017/02/03 Fri
15:00〜16:30
International hub: congestion pricing and capacity investment
林明信(大阪経済大学)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
2016/12/02 Fri
16:30〜18:00
Partition, independence and population geography in Bengal
坪田建明(JETROアジア経済研究所)
京都大学経済研究所本館1階 第二共同研究室
要旨:Until Bengal Province in British India was partitioned in 1947, the region was ruled as British India. This study quantitatively explores the changing population geography in Bengal, with a particular focus on the events of 1947 (Partition of India) and 1971 (Independence of Bangladesh). Based on decadal census data from 1901 to 2001 at the district level, this paper examines how trends in regional population growth evolved with such historical events. Following Redding and Sturm (2008), Differences-in-Differences estimation is also employed here and the events of 1947 and 1971 are taken as the subjects of the test. Estimation results show that there were different shocks on both sides and from both events. In West Bengal, the change in the regional population trends occurred in 1947 and remained similar thereafter. On the other hand, in East Bengal, this did not occur in 1947, but did occur in 1971. Further robustness checks show that the impacts were not uniform with respect to the distance from the border. Overall analyses show that the emergence of the international border in Bengal had asymmetric impacts on both sides of the population geography. The results suggest that changes in the population geography reflect the degree of tensions over the border.
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